Center for Operation of Space Ground-Based Infrastructure

Center for Operation of Space
Ground-Based Infrastructure

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Launch Services

ILV «Zenit-3SLBF» with US «Fregat-SB»
Works of Landfill Type and Deliveries

Technical Maintenance (the works with the objects of infrastructure)
Services for Space Activity
Deliveries of Space Facilities
Deliveries of Propellant Components
The insurance of space risks

- design and production of SRT
- transportation of SRT
- pre-launching procedure
- launch and injection of SV into orbit
- flight testing and operation of SC into orbit
Third Party insurance

The Launch Vehicles
The Upper Stage Booster

Glonass-M spacecraft launch

April 26, 2013 at 9:23 Moscow time with launcher platform 43/4 Plesetsk cosmodrome combat crew Forces Aerospace Defense implemented successfully launch rocket Soyuz 2.1b with upper stage Fregat and Glonass-M spacecraft.

At 9:26 Moscow time carrier rocket Soyuz 2.1b is taken to support ground-based testing of the Titov Main Space Center.

All the pre-launch and launch operations were in the normal mode.



Intended for Russia’s satellite navigation system, the Glonass family, or Uragan, was designed by Zheleznogorsk-based Reshetnev ISS (former NPO PM).

Two Glonass modifications are currently in operation – the Glonass 11F654 and the improved Glonass-M first launched in December 2003. The two versions are based on similar design solutions and have a common pressurized platform. As for the changes, antenna-feeder devices were upgraded, design lifetime was extended to 7 years, and a second navigation frequency band for civilian users was introduced.

Glonass spacecraft perform a number of functions:

• transmit stable radio navigation signals;
• receive, store and transmit digital navigation data;
• generate, digitalize and transmit time signals;
• relay or transmit trajectory measurement signals for orbit control and time scale correction;
• receive and process commands;
• receive, store and implement in-orbit operation control programs;
• generate onboard equipment telemetry data and transmit it to the ground control complex for processing and analysis;
• receive and follow commands of onboard time scale correction and phasing;
• report malfunctions.

A Glonass-M spacecraft consists of a cylindrical pressurized container with an equipment bay, a frame of antenna-feeder devices, attitude system instruments, solar array panels with drivers, a propulsion unit, and thermal control system shutters with drivers.

Each Glonass-M satellite also hosts optical angular deflectors to calibrate measurement system signals by measuring optical satellite distance and specify geodynamic trajectory parameters. An angular deflector is designed as a unit continuously tracking direction to the Earth’s center.

The onboard equipment includes:

• navigation complex;
• control complex;
• orientation and stability system;
• correction system;
• thermal control system;
• electric power system.

Glonass-M Specifications

First launch 2003
Key features Two «civil» frequencies
End of service 2013
Mass, kg 1415
Diameter, m 1,3
Maximum length (with magnetometer deployed), m 7,84
Maximum width (with solar arrays deployed), m 7,23
Power system, W 1450
Navigation payload:
Mass, kg
Power consumption, W

Attitude accuracy, deg 0,5
Solar arrays pointing accuracy, deg 2
Timing accuracy, sec 1 x 10 -13
Design lifetime, years 7
Launch vehicle 3 craft on Proton or one on Soyuz-2

The Soyuz-2 launcher is built to launch spacecraft with military, economic and scientific missions. Soyuz-2 development, manufacture and flight testing will provide free access to outer space, and help advance the country’s economy, science and defense.

The key features of the most reliable rocket family based on the R-7 ICBM are use of domestic hardware elements and injection of all existing med-sized payloads and those in development from Plesetsk.

The Soyuz-2 launch vehicle is developed and manufactured by the Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center, city of Samara, with the Federal Space Agency and the Ministry of Defense as state customers.

The Soyuz-2 launch vehicle was developed based on the production Soyuz-U vehicle, which has been in successful operation since 1973. Manufactured by plants, associations and organizations situated on the Russian territory, the new upgraded rocket widens the range of light- and middle-class spacecraft launched into orbit.

Soyuz-2 can launch payloads either directly or using a Fregat upper stage. Rocket power performance and digital control system enable to increase payload mass and dimensions.

The new launcher of the Soyuz family is characterized by a number of improvements:

• Payload mass launched into LEO (200 km) has been increased to 250–300 kg (phase 1A); 1,100–1,200 kg (phase 1B).
• Payload volume has been enlarged to use large diameter payload fairings (4.11 m).
• Injection accuracy has been boosted (orbital period error will make up ±2.5 sec at most: now we have an orbital period error of ±22 sec).
• The range of orbit inclinations has been expanded, but nominal drop zones remain the same due to three-dimensional maneuvers during powered flight.
• Payloads can be placed into highly circular, elliptical, sun synchronous, geotransfer, and geostationary orbits and escape trajectories, when using a Fregat upper stage.

To turn into Soyuz-2, the Soyuz launch vehicle has undergone the
following changes:

• Specific performance of the first and second stages was improved by new spray injectors.
• The new digital control system and high precision devices ensuring optimum trajectories, three-dimensional maneuver and high injection accuracy were installed.
• A new variant of the third stage based on modern augmented engines was built.
• A new digital telemetry system was developed. A new trajectory measurement system based on navigation equipment was developed.

Soyuz-2 Characteristics

Mass Characteristics Launch Mass, t 311,7
Launch Vehicle Mass (w/o spacehead), t 303,2
Launch Vehicle Structure Mass (w/o spacehead), t 24,4
Propellant Mass, t 278,8
Payload Mass, kg (Soyuz-2.1А / Soyuz-2.1B) LEO Payload Mass (H = 200 km, i = 5.3 °) 7480 / 8660
SSO Payload Mass (H = 820 km, i = 98.7 °) 4350 / 4900
GTO Payload Mass (Δ V = 1,500 m/s) 2780 / 3060
GEO Payload Mass (H = 36,000 km, i = 0 °) 1300 / 1480
Propellant Components Oxidizer liquid oxygen
Fuel Т-1 (kerosene)
Engine Thrust, tf 1st Stage (4 х RD-107А) - Ground / Vacuum 85,5 х 4 / 104,1х 4
2nd Stage (RD-108А) - Ground / Vacuum 79,4 / 101, 0
3rd Stage (RD-0110 / RD-0124) - Vacuum 30,4 / 30,0

The Fregat upper stage is designed by the Lavochkin Research and Production Association under the Federal Space Program of Russia.

Fregat is intended to place a variety of spacecraft in orbit using both existing or future launch vehicles of the R-7A family.

The upper stage makes it possible to appreciably increase power and performance of launch vehicles. Fregat enables to deliver spacecraft practically to any Earth orbit or interplanetary trajectory.

The Fregat upper stage is designed to:

•  transfer one or more spacecraft from their support orbits to working orbits or escape trajectories;
• distribute craft between working orbits in multi payload launches;
• move payload from open-end trajectories into support orbits (final injection maneuvering);
• stabilize payload both at coasting and launch phases;
• ensure the required attitude prior to craft separation;
• remove the upper stage from working orbit after injection to prevent pollution of outer space.

The structure of the Fregat upper stage is formed by the pack of tanks for the main propulsion system. These tanks are configured as six hemispheres of equal diameter, welded together. Four spheres act as the propellant tanks, the remaining two operate as sealed instrumentation bays. Oxidizer tank and fuel tank are separated one from another by tri-metallic partition walls. A strengthening beam passes through each propellant tank, one per tank, and two beams per tank are used for pressurized containers. These beams form a connection truss.

Fregat Characteristics

Launch Mass, kg 6415 – 6535
Dry Mass, kg 980 – 1100
Overall Dimensions, mm Height 1500
Diameter (circumscribed) 3350
Main Propulsion System Designation С5-92
Dry Mass, kg 75
Propellant Components Oxidizer nitrogen tetroxide
Propellant Components Ratio 2
Fuel Operation Reserve (max), kg 5350
Main Engine Thrust, kN 20
Engine Specific Impulse, N x s/kg
Combustion Chamber Pressure, MPa 9,80
Maximum Firings 20
Stability, Orientation Control and Launch Support Power Unit
Fuel hydrazine
Fuel Operation Reserve (max), kg 85
Thrusters 12
Thrust, N 50
Thruster Specific Impulse, N x s/kg 2250





This complex is intended for processing payloads and lifting them on the Soyuz vehicle.

The launch complex (LC) was developed by the Barmin General Engineering Design Bureau (NIISK, a division of TsENKI).

The launch complex consists of:

• technological equipment used for LV delivery to the launch pad, its mounting at the launch system, launch vehicle azimuth orientation, integrated prelaunch tests, launch vehicle fueling, craft and rocket thermal conditioning, and liftoff;
• equipment facilities;
• engineering systems providing necessary conditions for equipment operation and life support of attending personnel (ventilation, lighting, etc.);
• facilities for remote control of technological and support systems and sets of rocket/craft test equipment.

Soyuz launch facilities are complex technical constructions: each one is a multi-storey, armored concrete building, the top of which is leveled with the launch pad, with a wide central aperture that transforms into a deep, lean-to exhaust duct.

The launch plant’s overhanging balcony-like apron accommodates the unique launch system with a rotating ring that carries four lattice work, retractable support towers on which the launch vehicle is suspended.

Gimbal mounting of the support towers allows their full collar-like closure at the top into a power ring that is kept closed by the mass of the suspended rocket. As soon as the rocket starts moving, the load originally applied to the power ring is removed to cause the support towers to retract by action of their own counterweights and let the blasting-off launch vehicle go freely.

The described configuration in which the rocket is suspended by its support elements near the center of gravity made unnecessary any special reinforcement of the LV end section as might be required for packaging the strap-on and core modules.

In addition, the rotating ring of the launch system includes two gimbalmounted service towers with several semicircle level decks: the level decks closing to embrace the launch vehicle allow service personnel to work on the entire height of the erected launch vehicle.

Service towers incorporate elevators for personnel, cosmonauts, equipment and materials. Before liftoff towers are forced apart and lowered.

Another element located on the supporting ring is the launch umbilical tower (LUT) designed to bring and connect cables, filling, drain and pneumatic lines or other utilities. Those connections disengage and move away together with the counterweighted LUT during the launch.

The rooms available inside the launch plant accommodate stationary propellant filling, thermal conditioning, remote control, compressed gas supply systems, firefighting and gas monitoring equipment, etc. A niche in the launch structure accommodates multiple-level service cabin for servicing the launch vehicle’s lower part. The cabin extends above the exhaust duct.

Customers Launch

Federal Space Agency

The Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) is a governmental organization which manages space exploration activities for the national economy, science and engineering and implements the Russian Space Program.

Air and Space Defense Forces

The Air and Space Defense Forces (ASDF) are a new military branch formed to ensure Russia’s air and space security.

Participants Launch

Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems Co.

Reshetnev ISS owns technologies of a full development cycle from satellite design to satellite control in all types of orbits, from low circular to geostationary.

Russian Institute of Space Device Engineering

Over the years in space exploration the Institute gained unique expertise in development, manufacture, and operation of different space and ground systems.

Center for Operation of Space Ground-Based Infrastructure

Center for operation of space ground-based infrastructure («TsENKI») was established in 1994 to improve and develop Russia’s space infrastructure.

Progress Rocket Space Center

The Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center is Russia’s leading developer of medium launch vehicles, space complexes and defense, commercial, research and applied systems. The Center has designed highly reliable launch vehicles for spacecraft, manned and cargo spaceships and a number of complexes for technological research and imaging.

Lavochkin Research and Production Association

One of the Russian leaders in development and implementation of projects concerned with exploration of the Solar System planets, the solar weather, space information systems, the Earth’s surface monitoring, and astrophysical studies.

Glushko Research and Production Association for Power Engineering

The Glushko Research and Production Association for Power Engineering (NPO Energomash) is the leading organization in development and manufacture of liquid propellant engines.

Automatic Chemical Machinery Design Bureau

Open Stock Company “Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiky” (OSC KBKhA) is one of Russia’s leading design bureaus in the development of liquid propellant rocket engines and power plants for defense, research, and commercial rocketry.

Kuznetsov Joint Stock Company

Kuznetsov Joint Stock Company makes RD-107/RD-108 that are installed on the first and second stages of Soyuz, Soyuz-2 and their variants generated Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center.

Scientific and Production Association of automatics named after academician N.A.Semikhatov

Scientific and Production Association of automatics named after academician N.A.Semikhatov - one of the largest enterprises in Russia in the development and manufacture of control systems and electronic equipment for rocket and space technology.

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Предстоящий запуск Date: October 16, 2015
Launch Vehicle: Proton-M
Upper Stage: Breeze-M
Payload: Turksat 4B
Launch Site: Baikonur, Pad 200, Launcher 39



on 10.10.2015

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